He pretended to incarnate the new fascist Übermensch, promoting an aesthetic of exasperated Machismo that attributed to him quasi-divine capacities. In 1917 Mussolini got his start in politics with the help of a £100 weekly wage (the equivalent of £6000 as of 2009[update]) from the British security service MI5, to keep anti-war protestors at home and to publish pro-war propaganda. He saw the war as an opportunity, both for his own ambitions as well as those of socialists and Italians.  In 1904, having been arrested again in Geneva and expelled for falsifying his papers, Mussolini returned to Lausanne, where he attended the University of Lausanne's Department of Social Science, following the lessons of Vilfredo Pareto.  On 23 March 1919 Mussolini re-formed the Milan fascio as the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (Italian Combat Squad), consisting of 200 members. Italy picked-up two goals in the second half to make the scoreline look less harsh, but objective observers came away convinced of England’s superiority. The Battle for Land initiative was abandoned in 1940. Edition of 1999. Despite this, the Greek counter-offensive in Italian Albania ended in a stalemate that allowed the Germans to by-pass Greek defences and invade the country. The textbooks said that Italy should have Ethiopia and that Mussolini was bringing prosperity back to Italy, developing farmland, building roads, and getting the trains to run on time. This motion carried by a 19–8 margin. Soon, however, he changed his mind about intervention. While earning a reputation as a political journalist and public speaker, he produced propaganda for a trade union, proposing a strike and advocating violence as a means of enforcing demands. 335 pp. Mussolini became Prime Minister in 1922 with support of both the king and the military. Italian’s economy did go through a phase of success but his fascist ideology made the economic problems come back, as for the political success, Mussolini achieved his main goal by making Italy be a one state party, the Fascists and took over Italy. Italy was supposed to be turned into a world power, and gain an empire that allowed her to control the Mediterranean. In September 1940, the Italian Tenth Army was commanded by General Rodolfo Graziani and crossed from Italian Libya into Egypt, where British forces were located; this would become the Western Desert Campaign. a new roman empire. Thus he claimed that the vast social changes that the war could offer meant that it should be supported as a revolutionary war.. In 1937, the Muslims of Libya presented Mussolini with the "Sword of Islam" while Fascist propaganda pronounced him as the "Protector of Islam.". The Italians invaded Egypt, bombed Mandatory Palestine, and occupied British Somaliland with initial success. As an adult, Benito Mussolini would have two wives and many mistresses.  Giuseppe Volpi, who had been appointed governor in 1921 was retained by Mussolini, and withdrew all of the measures offering equality to the Libyans. An exception was the bombardment and occupation of Corfu in 1923, following an incident in which Italian military personnel charged by the League of Nations to settle a boundary dispute between Greece and Albania were assassinated by bandits; the nationality of the bandits remains unclear. The British wanted Italy on their side against Germany as it had been in World War I. Nationalists in the years after World War I thought of themselves as combating the liberal and domineering institutions created by cabinets—such as those of Giovanni Giolitti, including traditional schooling. The Manifesto, which was closely modeled on the Nazi Nuremberg Laws, stripped Jews of their Italian citizenship and with it any position in the government or professions. 1 But Benito followed more in the footsteps of his father and when he did accompany his mother to church, he was a malcontent, often getting himself into trouble. As a former journalist, Mussolini proved highly adept at exploiting all forms of mass media, including such new forms as motion pictures and radio. 3 4. The Allies invaded Italy in July 1943; Mussolini was soon expelled from power and the new government surrendered to the Allies in September.  After Mussolini left the palace, he was arrested by Carabinieri on the king's orders. 1. 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